Banks of Plum Creek: 20—"School" and 21—"Nellie Oleson"

Teacher's Guide Author: Marie Dattero, 4th grade teacher, Theron and Naomi T. Goynes Elementary School, Clark County School District

This teachers' guide is one of a series including activities for all chapters of On the Banks of Plum Creek. Additional teacher's guides are available for other Little House books as well as other books addressing the topic of U.S. westward migration.

Chapter Overviews
  • Chapter 20: "School" addresses the experiences of Laura and Mary attending their first day of school. Laura Ingalls Wilder does a great job of describing their long journey the girls have to trek, animals, and their surroundings they encounter on the way to school. The two girls experience walking to town for the first time. They are amazed at what the shops, streets, and building look like. Upon reaching school they are noticed by other children. The boys and girls weren't very nice to them. They call them names and refer to them as "Snipes" because of their short dresses and their long dangling legs. The girls did meet a girl by the name of Christy Kennedy who befriended them and showed them the ropes of their new school. After entering their one-roomed schoolhouse for their first time, Laura expressed to her teacher how much she knew and how much she could read. Mary realized that she couldn't do as much as Laura. She didn't even know the letters of the alphabet.
  • Chapter 21: In "Nellie Oleson," Mary and Laura realize the differences between them and the other school children, especially Nellie Oleson. Nellie is one of the girls who is in their class. She is the daughter of Mr. Oleson who is a store owner in town where Pa attends frequently for supplies. She is not so friendly towards the girls and feels that she has control when it comes to playing at recess or doing any other activities. In the chapter Laura has an encounter with Nellie at recess. Laura suggested to the other children on playing a game. Nellie wasn't too happy about that game and pulled Laura's hair suggesting that she didn't want to play that game. Towards the end of the chapter Nellie finds a way to make friends by inviting the girls to a birthday party.

Chapters' Themes: Courage; Family; Hardship; Friendship; Prejudice; One-roomed schoolhouses; Poverty; Pioneer life

Instructional Activities
  • Language Arts
    • Letters Back Home
      • Make sure you address to the students the time of year they are writing. Begin by having students brainstorm information from previous chapters by making a bubble map (see
      • Because Laura is so advanced in her studies, the teacher shows Laura many different writing techniques such as letter writing. Laura is thinking about friends she left behind when her family moved and about how great her life has become since moving. She recalls all her family achieved so far and all that she and Mary have achieved. Have students put themselves in Laura's shoes and write letters back home to her friends.
      • Have students make up a friend to whom they will write and then have them write a letter describing their lives as if they were living in the new area. Have students describe their school, school subjects, content being taught, going to town for the first time, friends they've met, and their feelings.
      • To begin with the letter writing have students make a flow map of their main ideas and supporting details for each paragraph. Refer to the website shown above on Thinking Maps.
      • Each paragraph of the letter should address a different subject. The letter should be at least five paragraphs in length. Each paragraph should use rich language of the descriptions of all the topics as Laura Ingalls Wilder uses in paragraph 20 and 21.
      • The format of the letter should follow the friendly letter format.
      • A generic rubric for grading the letters is available at
      1. Standards Addressed
        • (4) 1.4 comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using: identify connotative and denotative meaning in text [NS 1.4.4], develop vocabulary through meaningful experiences (e.g., listen to and discuss selections read aloud, wide reading, discussion of word meaning, interactive activities, examples and non-examples)
        • (4) 1.5 participate actively in reading from a variety of literary genres and expository selections (e.g., stories, plays, poetry, biographies, myths, articles, manuals, encyclopedia, realistic fiction, electronic resources)
          1. read silently daily
          2. read assigned and self-select books appropriate to purpose and reading ability
          3. read to locate information and solve problems
          read and understand a variety of literary and expository text
        • (4) 2.2 A. select during-reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to
          1. use self-correcting strategies (e.g., self-question, reread, use context clues)
          [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          2. make, confirm, and revise predictions [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          3. understand and use key vocabulary [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          4. identify main idea and supporting details [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          5. make inferences [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          6. apply knowledge of text type [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          7. clarify understanding of text (e.g., take notes, generate questions, discuss, check other sources)
          8. make connections to personal experiences and knowledge
          9. visualize/create mental images
          10. use appropriate graphic organizer
        • (4) 2.3 A. select after-reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to
          1. recall details/facts [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          2. restate main ideas [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          3. organize information (e.g., graphic organizer, outline) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        • (4) 3.1 A. explain
          1. setting [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          2. sequence of events [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          3. conflict [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          4. climax [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          5. resolution [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          6. turning point [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          B. identify how one event may cause another event [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          C. make inferences and draw conclusions about setting and plot based on evidence
          [PS/NS 3.4.1]
          D. describe internal and external conflict with assistance [NS 3.4.1]
          E. identify and discuss main plot and subplots with assistance [NS 3.4.1]
        • (4) 3.4 identify first-person point of view [NS 3.4.4]
      1. (4) 3.9 A. use information to answer and generate specific questions (e.g., literal and inferential questions) [PS/NS 3.4.9]
        B. make connections to self, other text, and/or the world [NS 3.4.9]
        C. summarize information [NS 3.4.9]
        D. describe how author’s purpose and writing style influence reader’s response
        E. evaluate text (e.g., draw conclusions and make inferences) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        F. recall details [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        G. restate main ideas [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        H. organize information (e.g., graphic organizer, outline) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        I. synthesize text [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        J. connect, compare, and contrast story elements
      2. (4) 5.1 use prewriting strategies, both independently and collaboratively with peers, to plan written work (e.g., graphic organizers, brainstorming) [PS/NS 5.4.1]
        B. consider audience and purpose
        C. consider format
        D. explore a topic to plan written work [PS/NS 5.4.1]
        E. choose and narrow a topic to organize ideas (e.g., lists, graphic organizers, outlines, note taking) [PS/NS 5.4.1]
        F. ask questions to expand knowledge
      3. (4) 5.2 draft multiple-paragraph papers, both independently and collaboratively with peers, about a single topic that address
        1. audience and purpose [PS/NS 5.4.2]
        2. an introduction [PS/NS 5.4.2]
        3. supporting details [PS/NS 5.4.2]
        4. transitions [PS/NS 5.4.2]
        5. a conclusion [PS/NS 5.4.2]
        B. participate in daily writing activity (e.g., journals, learning logs, summaries, lists, computer generated documents)
        C. use pattern and structure rules to correctly spell (e.g., plurals: ~s, ~es, ~ies, ~ves; inflectional suffixes: ~ed, ~ing, ~er, ~est)
      4. (4) 5.7 prepare a legible final draft to display or share [PS/NS 5.4.7]
        1. form cursive letters correctly
        2. adhere to margins and indentations
        3. use basic word processing skills
        B. select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose with assistance [NS 5.4.7]
      5. (4) 6.2 write multiple-paragraph narrative/descriptive papers about experiences and/or events appropriate to audience and purpose that include
        1. logical sequence [PS/NS 6.4.2]
        2. characters [PS/NS 6.4.2]
        3. setting [PS/NS 6.4.2]
        4. plot [PS/NS 6.4.2]
        5. dialogue [PS/NS 6.4.2]
        6. figurative language [NS 6.4.2]
        7. concrete sensory details [NS 6.4.2]
  • (4) 6.7 write friendly letters following an established format [PS/NS 6.4.7]
  • Comparing My Life to Life on the Banks of Plum Creek
      1. Students will compare their lives at home and at school to Mary or Laura's life at home and at school.
      2. Students will use a double bubble map to compare themselves to Mary or Laura.
      3. Teacher will brainstorm information that they have learned about the girls going to school such as: going to town, books, clothing, one-room schoolhouses, and other information found in the chapters.
      4. This website provides a blank example of a double bubble map
      5. They will brainstorm many facts about school, walking to town, meeting friends, and clothing.
      6. After the double bubble maps are complete students can use the information to create a four-door foldable book.
      7. Teachers can provide the students with a large piece of construction paper (11 1/2 x 18), either white or another light color.
      8. Teachers will demonstrate for the students how to fold the paper. Holding the paper horizontally the teacher will take one end of the paper and fold it towards the middle and take the other end of the paper and fold it towards the middle. Looking at the paper you will see that there are two flaps that open in the middle of the paper and extend outward.
      9. Half way down the middle of the flaps the teacher will demonstrate how to make a cut through the middle to the end of the fold of each flap. This will create two flaps on both folds. Looking at the foldable you will see four doors that open to the middle of the paper. For a picture of the foldable you can visit this site
      10. On the top left outside flap the students can label it as "My Home Life" and on the bottom left outside flap the students can label it as "My School Life."
      11. On the top right outside flap the students can label it as "Laura or Mary's Home Life" and on the bottom right outside flap the students can label it as "Laura or Mary's School Life."
      12. On the inside students will take the information from their double bubble maps and list it on the according sides.
      13. Under each flap they should write at least five facts from their lives at home and at school for a total of ten facts. They should write the same amount for Laura or Mary's home and school lives as well.
      14. In the middle the students will write what they have in common with Mary or Laura.
      15. For the middle they should have at least five facts that they share.
      16. Students may also decorate the foldable to represent chapters 20 and 21.

  • Standards Addressed
        1. (4) 2.2 select during-reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to
          1. use self-correcting strategies (e.g., self-question, reread, use context clues)
          [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          2. make, confirm, and revise predictions [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          3. understand and use key vocabulary [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          4. identify main idea and supporting details [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          5. make inferences [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          6. know when meaning is lost
          7. adjust reading rate [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          8. apply knowledge of text type [PS/NS 2.4.2]
          9. clarify understanding of text (e.g., take notes, generate questions, discuss, check other sources)
          10. make connections to personal experiences and knowledge
          11. visualize/create mental images
          12. use appropriate graphic organizer
        2. (4) 2.3 select after-reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to
          1. recall details/facts [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          2. restate main ideas [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          3. organize information (e.g., graphic organizer, outline) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          4. record information [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          5. synthesize text [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          6. evaluate text (e.g., draw conclusions, make inferences) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          7. evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          8. connect, compare, and contrast story elements
        3. (4) 3.2 A. describe physical and personality traits [PS/NS 3.4.2]
          B. describe the motivation for a character’s actions [PS/NS 3.4.2]
          C. make inferences and draw conclusions about a character(s) based on evidence [PS/NS 3.4.2]
        4. (4) 4.5 A. make connections to self, other text, and/or the world [PS/NS 4.4.5]B. recall details/facts [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          C. restate main ideas [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          D. organize information (e.g., graphic organizer, outline) [PS/NS 2.4.3]
          E. record information [PS/NS 2.4.3]
        5. (4) 5.7 prepare a legible final draft to display or share [PS/NS 5.4.7]
          1. form cursive letters correctly
          2. adhere to margins and indentations
          3. use basic word processing skills
        6. (4) 6.4 write responses to literary text that demonstrate an understanding of
          1. setting [PS/NS 6.4.4]
          2. character development [PS/NS 6.4.4]
          3. motivation [PS/NS 6.4.4]
          B. summarize information from literary text [NS 6.4.4]

  • Mathematics

    • How Do We Get to School?
      • In chapter 20 it states that Mary and Laura walk 2 1/2 miles to school. They walk through the prairie and eventually make it to town where their school is.
      • Take a survey in class and ask the students if they walk, ride, their bike, or drive.
      • Make a bar graph using a large piece of butcher paper. Make three columns: walk, riding bikes, and driving.
      • Have the students write their names on small post-it notes to attach to the graph. They will place their post-it notes under the form used to come to school.
      • Now have the students make another graph using the information they recieved from the bar graph. The students can make pictographs, line graphs, or pie charts.
      • The students can log onto
      • To create their own graphs using the information from the bar graphs. They can save and print their own graphs.
      • For an extension the students can create another survey of their own. They can take a tally of the class and create a different graph.

      • Standards Addressed
        • (4)5.2 organize and represent data using a variety of graphical representations including frequency tables and line plots. [NS 5.4.1]
        • (4)5.6 interpret data and make predictions using frequency tables and line plots. [NS 5.4.3]
        • (4)A.8 use technology, including calculators, to investigate and describe relationships such as patterns and functions, to develop mathematical concepts and solve problems [NS A.3-5]
        • (4)B.2 use inquiry techniques (discussion, questioning, research, and data gathering) to solve mathematical problems [NS B.3-5]
        • (4)B.4 use a variety of methods (physical materials, diagrams, and tables) to represent and then communicate mathematical ideas through oral, verbal, and written formats [NS/PS B.3-5]
        • (4)D.6 identify, explain, and use mathematics in everyday life [NS D.3-5]

    • How Far Do We Travel?
      • In chapter 20 it states that Mary and Laura have to walk 2 1/2 miles to school.
      • Instruct the students how to convert 2 1/2 miles into feet. They instruct them how convert 2 1/2 miles into inches.
      • Now have the students convert the US Customary units into metric units.
      • Advise the students that the metric system is not exactly like the US Customary system.
      • You can give them hints such as:
        A meter is about the same length as a yard
        A meter is about three feet long
        A decimeter is about four inches long
        An inch is about 25 millimeters
        A foot contains about 30 centimeters
        A foot contains about 3 decimeters
      • Have the students work in groups of three to see what their measurements are. They will convert into meters, centimeters, decimeters, and millimeters.

      • Standards Addressed

        • (4)D.6 identify, explain, and use mathematics in everyday life [NS D.3-5]
        • (4)3.1 estimate and convert units of measure for length, area, and weight within the same measurement system (customary and metric) [NS 3.4.1]
        • (4)3.2 estimate temperature in practical situations [NS 3.4.1]
        • (4)3.3 measure, compare, and convert length in inches, feet, yards, and miles to the nearest fractional part (1/4, 1/2)
        • (4)3.4 measure, compare, and convert length in metric units (millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer)

    • Social Studies

      • Building a Pioneer Town
        • Students will research pioneer towns on the internet. Students may work in triads or partners to complete this project.
        • They can use as a primary search engine to research. While reasearching pioneer towns students should be looking at maps and diagrams of the towns to see what main components make up a pioneer town.
        • Teachers can introduce pioneer towns by relating back to chapter 20 and how Laura Ingalls Wilder described her town as Mary and Laura were walking to school. What were the important stores in the town used for? What were the stores called?
        • Students will research the importantance of all of the different stores that are located in a pioneer town. They will write a one paragraph description and the importance of each to be included with their towns.
        • Examples of what stores are in a pioneer town include: a blacksmith shop, general store, post office, schools, churches, lumberyards, livery stable, and hotels.
        • Students will make a map of their Pioneer Town. They will give their town a name,and label the shops and convieneces that are in their town, and map out the distances of their shops. Students can use inches to represent feet: 1 inch= 10 feet.
        • Once the diagrams are complete and approved by the teacher they can begin constructing their pioneer towns.
        • Using a large piece of contruction paper as the base of their pioneer town and paper examples of the buildings students will construct their towns. The sites for the buildings are listed below. Teachers may print out the examples and give copies to each group of students.
        • Students will attach their paragraphs of their building to the reverse side of the diagram of the pioneer town.
        • In the towns the students should include: a school, church, general store, and two other businesses of their choice.
        • In the descriptions of their buildings, the students must include the importance of each building to the pioneer people, and a personal connection.

    • Standards Addressed

          • (4)3.10 list examples of physical and human features from the community or region[NS 2.4.1]
          • (4)3.15 give an example of how a place where they have lived has changed in their lifetime [NS 2.4.6]
          • (4)3.23 list reasons why people move to or from a particular place [NS 4.4.2]
          • (4)3.24describe changes in how people move from one place to another [NS 4.4.3]

      • Pioneer Games
        • In chapter 21 Nellie Oleson is mad because she wants to play Ring Around the Rosey. Laura and Christy want to play Uncle John.
        • Teach the students other games that the girls may have played at recess.
        • There are so many games that can be played with boys and girls, just girls, or just boys. I have a found this great website that teaches the games and how to play them.
        • The teacher can even split the class up into groups of 5 or 6 to play several games.
        • Use the website
        • Its amazing to see how fun the games are and how much they are like games today.

        • Standards Addressed
          • (4)4.11 discuss how and why people from various cultures immigrated and migrated to the American West
          • (4)4.12 read historical passages and interpret details
          • (4)4.13 identify appropriate resources for historical information

    • Science

      • Animals in Prairie Towns
        • In chapter 20 Laura and Mary were refered to as "snipes" because of their long dangly legs.
        • Ask the students "What is a snipe?"
        • After some discussion describe to them what a snipe is and show them a picture on the internet
        • Have the students reserach other mammal, reptiles, insects, or birds found on a prairie.
        • This project can be completed independantly or in groups.
        • This website might be useful
        • Using a large poster board students will make an informational poster about the mammal, reptile, insect, or bird they choose to research.
        • On the left side of the poster the students will write or type 10-15 facts found on the mammal, reptile, insect, or bird.
        • In the middle of the poster they will write the name of the mammal, insect, reptile, or bird in large letters. Under the name they will write the scientific name and either draw a large picture or print out a colored picture from the internet.
        • On the right side of the poster board they will write a paragraph describing the physical features of the mammal, reptile, insect, or bird.
        • They will also write a paragraph describing the location of the animal, bird, or insect, habitat and behavior, food they eat, and their predators.
        • Each section of the poster should be neatly written or typed and presented.

        • Standards Addressed

          • L2C Students understand that living things live in different places.
          • L5C Students understand that there are a variety of ecosystems on Earth and organisms interact within their ecosystems.
          • L8C Students understand how living and non-living components of ecosystems interact.
          • L12C Students understand that ecosystems display patterns of organization, change, and stability as a result of the interactions and interdependencies between the living and non-living components of the Earth.
          • L2D Students understand that there are many kinds of living things on Earth.
          • L5D Students understand that living things can be classified according to physical characteristics, behaviors, and habitats.

      • The Hot Sun

    • "Keep your sunbonnet on! You'll be brown as an Indian, and what will the town girls think of us?"
        1. While Laura and Mary were walking to school Mary advised Laura to keep her head covered or else she would look like an indian.
        2. This would be a perfect time to introduce the properties of the sun.
        3. This website provides a tutorial of the sun
        4. This is also another great website to use for background information
        5. As an extension the students will make solar ovens out of pizza boxes.
        6. You will need:
          1. A medium size pizza box (Pizza Hut boxes work great)
          2. Black construction paper
          3. Extra-wide aluminum foil
          4. Plastic (plastic window covering from a hardware store works best)
          5. Glue
          6. Tape
          7. Scissors
          8. Ruler
          9. Magic marker
          10. String
        7. Tape foil to the inside bottom of the box. Cover the foil with black paper. Tape in place.
        1. Put the box on the plastic. Draw the outline of the box on the plastic with the marker. Cut the plastic about 1/4 inch inside the marks.
        2. On the top of the box, draw a line one inch from all sides. Cut along front and side lines BUT NOT along the back. This will be the hinge for the flap. Carefully fold open the flap.
        3. Cut a piece of foil the size of the flap. Glue it to the side of the flap that faces INTO the box. Flatten out all the winkles. Wipe glue smears off with a damp towel before they dry.
        4. Tape the plastic to the inside of the box. Tape one side first, then the opposite side. Make it tight so it looks like glass. Tape the other edges. Seal tight so no air can get in.
        5. Cut a piece of string as long as the box. Tape one end to the top of the flap. Push a small nail into the back of the box so you have a place to tie the string.
        6. Give it a try ... (English muffin pizzas, melting rate of chocolate "s-mores," etc....)
        7. Can you improve your oven? (add insulation, add reflectors, etc...)
          What else can you cook?

    • Standards Addressed
        1. (4)3.7 identify the sun as a star, and as the main source of energy for planet Earth [E5A1; E5B3]

    Historical Overview of Chapter Themes

    One-room School Houses

    One-room school houses were very typical and consisted of students ranging from 1st grade to 8th grade. The number students varied from 6 to 40 or sometimes even more. The teacher taught all subjects at all the different levels. Usually the younger students would sit in the front while the older students sat in the back. It was common that the tecaher would pull different grade levels and work seperately with them while the older students helped the younger students.
    The earliest of schools were build using simple construction methods. Usually framed models were usued. In some parts of the country sod and stone were used as well. The blackboards used in the classroom were really boards painted black. It wasn't until late that slates were used. Often time the students had their own slates to use for writing.
    Teachers who taught in the schools were just a few years older then the oldest students themselves. They were typically women and most of them were probably previous students themselves. They typically lived at the school or dormed with a family close by the school. They weren't paid very much for their duties and they held a large accountability. It is noted that on cold days the teachers would arrive early to start heating the room. They would most often cook hot meals for dinner to feed the children. Dinner was the afternoon meal. Teachers would also clean and prepare the room for the next day of learning.
    A typical school day began at 9 a.m. and lasted until 4 p.m. There would be a morning recess and an afternoon recess that was about 15 minutes long. The students also had an hour for lunch. Many one-room school houses were used too hold town meetings at night.
    The location of schools was usually in town. Students mostly arrived at school by walking. The students that lived too far too walk arrived usually by horse drawn wagons.
    Many one-room school houses aren't used anymore. They may have been torn down or preserved by many museums all over the world. In many town in the United States one-room school houses are used by communities of people such as the Amish.
    Additional Resources


    Note: This teacher's guide was developed as part of one of the Clark County School District's Teaching American History grants. In this grant module, teachers focused on using children's historical literature to teach cross-curricular concepts relating to 19th century westward movement. For more information about this blog, related teacher's guides, or the grant module, please contact Dr. Christy Keeler.


    Lisa Martin said...

    I found your Teacher's Guide to be extremely comprehensive and thorough! You provided so many excellent ideas to use in the classroom. I especially liked your links to the various websites as a support for the teacher to build background knowledge to deliver the lesson. It's so much easier to deliver great instruction when you are knowledgeable and confident about what you are asking the students to do. I also felt that your activities covered a great many of the Nevada standards for the majority of subjects.

    The solar oven idea was great. I have used this with my own students and the discussions and questions during and after the activity have been incredible! It really gets them thinking!!

    Another idea for your mathematics activity might be for the students to mark out two and one half miles on the school field. They could even make a two and one half mile trail using coins, counters, cans, etc. The students could then convert the number of coins into its equivalent monetary amount and record this in a graph or chart.

    For science, I would extend your 'Animals in Prairie Towns' lesson by producing a whole class culminating activity of the Jeopardy or Who Want to be a Millionaire game. This would really test the students learned knowledge. They could work in pairs or teams using notes they have written from each student's poster.

    Joelle said...

    Wow, this is very explicit and thorough. I enjoyed the pictures you posted and the numerous links such relevant information. The Hot Sun activity is fantastic. I may have included a picture of a sample so the students know what their oven is supposed to look like. The Pioneer Games activities are also very student friendly. I would extend the lesson by asking the students to teach the class one of the games they found online. I’m sure that your students will love the culminating activities; Jeopardy is such a good way to review what has been taught. Well Done Marie!

    Christy G. Keeler, Ph.D. said...

    This is truly extraordinary work. Bravo, Marie!

    You include incredible detail in your activity suggestions. Thank you! This makes it very easy to replicate the lessons.

    I always enjoy foldables because they offer such creative ways to reinforce content. Unfortunately, many teachers use foldables to simply teach and reinforce knowledge and comprehension level content. You have take the lesson much deeper by having students relate their own lives to Laura's life. This level of synthesis really challenges students and is a much better method for preparing students for the "real world."

    Perhaps you could extend your math activities by working with your physical education teacher to have students walk a mile to gain a true sense of the distance Laura walked each day. Also, when students create their own surveys, you could use Google Spreadsheets ( to have them place surveys online. Then, they could invite everyone in their grade level, school, or community to participate. This is authentic data collection on a bigger scale than the classroom data collection model and offers great results for graphing results.

    "Building a Pioneer Town" is a terrific idea! I recommend a three-dimensional element. You can use the method from "Box City" to do this. See